Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of larvae, as well as adult queens. The worker nurse bee secretes royal jelly from its’ hypopharynx glands. This is fed to the larvae of queen, worker and drone bees.
When worker bees decide to make a new queen, because the old queen is either weakening or dead, they choose several small female larvae and feed them with copious amounts of royal jelly in specially constructed cells. These cells are knows as queen cells and are much larger than a worker or drone cell. This type of feeding triggers the development of queen morphology, including the fully developed ovaries needed to lay eggs.
Royal jelly is secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees, and is fed to all bee larvae, whether they are destined to become drones (males), workers (sterile females), or queens (fertile females). After three days, the drone and worker larvae are no longer fed with royal jelly, but queen larvae continue to be fed this special substance throughout their development. It is harvested by humans by stimulating colonies with movable frame hives to produce queen bees. Royal jelly is collected from each individual queen cell (honeycomb) when the queen larvae are about four days old. It is collected from queen cells because these are the only cells in which large amounts are deposited; when royal jelly is fed to worker larvae, it is fed directly to them, and they consume it as it is produced, while the cells of queen larvae are “stocked” with royal jelly much faster than the larvae can consume it. Therefore, only in queen cells is the harvest of royal jelly practical. A well-managed hive during a season of 5–6 months can produce approximately 500 grams of royal jelly. Since the product is perishable, producers must have immediate access to proper cold storage (e.g., a household refrigerator or freezer) in which the royal jelly is stored until it is sold or conveyed to a collection centre. To aid the royal jelly shelf life, sometimes honey or beeswax are added.