Sac brood: A fairly common virus disease of larvae, usually nonfatal to the colony.
Scale: A dehydrated, dead larva shrunken to an elongated thin, flat chip at the bottom of a cell.
Scout bees: Worker bees searching for nectar or other needs including suitable location for a swarm to nest.
Screened Bottom Board (SBB):
Sealed brood: Brood in pupal stage with cells sealed.
Self-pollination: The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or to flowers of the same plant or other plants of identical genetic material such as apple varieties, clones of wild blueberries, etc. (See autopollination).
Septicemia: Usually minor disease of adult bees caused by Pseudomonas apiseptica.
SHB: Small Hive Beetle (Aethina tumida). The small hive beetle can be a destructive pest of honey bee colonies, causing damage to comb, stored honey and pollen. If a beetle infestation is sufficiently heavy, they may cause bees to abandon their hive. The beetles can also be a pest of stored combs, and honey (in the comb) awaiting extraction. Beetle larvae may tunnel through combs of honey, feeding and defecating, causing discoloration and fermentation of the honey.
Skep: A beehive, usually of straw and dome-shaped, that lacks movable frames.
Slatted Bottom Rack: A ventilation board that fits between the bottom hive body and the bottom board (Langstroth Hive). It provides cluster space for bees, allows air circulation without allowing a direct draft on the brood, and helps prevent swarming.
Slumgum: A dark residue, consisting of brood cocoons and pollen, which is left after wax is rendered by the beekeeper.
Smoker: Device used to blow smoke on bees to reduce stinging.
SMR (Suppress Mite Reproduction): Scientists at the Honey Bee Breeding Genetic & Physiology Laboratory (USDA, Agricultural Research Service) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, have selected bees that are resistant to this [varroa] mite. The mechanism of resistance is a trait of the honey bee that suppresses mite reproduction (SMR). This trait prevents female mites from producing progeny. Because SMR is a trait rather than a stock, SMR genes can be added to any population of honey bees by using traditional breeding methods.
Social insects: Insects which live in a family society, with parents and offspring sharing a common dwelling place and exhibiting some degree of mutual cooperation; e.g., honey bees, ants, termites.
Solar wax melter: Glass-covered box in which wax combs are melted by sun’s rays and wax is recovered in cake form.
Spermatheca: Small saclike organ in queen in which sperms are stored.
Spermatoza: Male reproductive cells.
Spiracles: External openings of tracheae through which bees breathe.
Spring dwindling: A condition in which the colony population decreases in size during spring at which time exponential population growth is anticipated.
Stamen: Male part of flower on which pollen-producing anthers are borne.
Sting: Modified ovipositor of female Hymenoptera developed into organ of defense.
Sucrose: Cane sugar; main solid ingredient of nectar before inversion into other sugars.
Super: A wooden box with frames containing foundation or drawn comb in which honey is to be produced. Named for its position above the brood nest. The same type of box is referred to as a hive body when it is situated below the honey supers and is intended to be used for brood rearing and pollen storage.
Supersedure: The replacement of a weak or old queen in a colony by a daughter queen – a natural occurrence.
Supersisters: Queens or worker bees produced by a single queen and sired by identical sperm from a single drone (subfamily).
Surplus honey: A term generally used to indicate an excess amount of honey above that amount needed by the bees to survive the winter. This surplus is usually removed by the beekeeper.
Swarm: Natural division of colony of bees.